Worldwide mobile subscriptions estimated to be around 7.9 billion subscriptions in 2018.Smartphones have become a indispensable tool for modern lifestyle. With a Smartphone, you can talk to anybody on the earth from almost anywhere.The number of mobile subscriptions grew at 3 percent year-on-year and currently totals 7.9 billion. China had the most net additions during the quarter (+37 million), followed by India (+31 million) and Indonesia (+13 million). But do you know how your Smartphone works!
A smartphone is essentially a two-way radio signal, consisting of a radio receiver a radio transmitter . When you chat with your friend on your Smartphone, Smartphone converts your voice into an electrical signal, which is then transmitted via radio waves to the nearest Mobile tower. The network of Mobile towers then relays the radio wave to your friend’s Smartphone, which converts it to an electrical signal and then back to sound again.
A radio antenna is a device which turns radio waves into electric currents that can then be processed into sound by a radio receiver. Additionally, it can do the opposite, and convert existing electronic audio signals into transmitted radio waves that other antennas can receive. When a Smartphone transmits audio, it applies an oscillating electric current to the Smartphone antenna. The Smartphone antenna then emits corresponding electromagnetic waves, which are also known as radio waves. To receive calls, the Smartphone antenna intercepts an electromagnetic wave of a particular frequency. Its terminal then receives a minimum amount of voltage, which is amplified and converted to sound by other Electronic components.
Smartphones contain at least one radio antenna in order to transmit or receive radio signals. An antenna converts an electric signal to the radio wave (receiver) and vice versa (transmitter). Some Smartphones contain one antenna as the transmitter and receiver while others, such as the iPhone, have multiple transmitting or receiving antennas.
An antenna, in general, is a metallic element (such as copper) engineered to be a specific size and shape for transmitting and receiving specific frequencies of radio waves. Whileolder generation cell phones have external or extractable antennas,Now Smartphones contain more compact antennas inside. the Mobile device thanks to advanced antenna technologies. It’s important to understand that any metallic components in the device (such as the circuit board and the metal frame for the iPhone) can interact with the transmission antenna(s) and the transmitted signal. Many modern smartphones also contain more than one type of antenna. In addition to the cellular antenna, they may also have Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and/or GPS antennas.
We also need to know what frequencies the antenna will work at. The Smartphone antenna will typically have both a lowband (somewhere between 700 and 960 MHz), and a highband (somewhere between 1710 and 2700 MHz). Most phones will support some combination of the following bands/frequency ranges:
GSM (2G) – GSM850 (824-894 MHz), GSM900 (890-960), DCS (1710-1880 MHz), PCS (1850-1990)
UMTS (3G) – Band 5 (824-894), Band 8 (890-960), Band 4 (1710-1880), Band 2 (1850-1990), Band 1 (1922-2170)
LTE (4G) – Band 17 (704-746), Band 13 (746-790), Band 5, Band 8, Band 4, Band 2, Band 1, Band 7 (2500-2690)
The number of frequency bands expands every year. A phone that is developed for the U.S. market might only support GSM850, PCS, Band 5 (LTE and UMTS), Band 2 (LTE and UMTS). Some companies try to developed world Smartphones that support all bands, which greatly complicates the antenna design.
A Smartphone is a two-way wireless communication device and needs both the inbound signal (reception) and the outbound signal (transmission) to work. The magnitude of the received signal from the Cell tower is called the “signal strength”, which is commonly indicated by the “Signal bars” on your phone. The connectivity between a cell phone and its cellular network depends on both signals and is affected by many factors, such as the distance between the Smartphone and the nearest cell tower, the number of impediments between them and the wireless technology (e.g. GSM ,LTE).
In order to conserve battery life, Smartphone will vary the strength of its transmitted signal and use only the minimum necessary to communicate with the nearest cell tower. When your cell phone has poor connectivity, it transmits a stronger signal in order to connect to the tower, and as a result your battery drains faster. That’s why good connectivity not only reduces dropped calls, but also saves battery life.